Offering Different Types of Psychological Assessments There are so many reasons for choosing to undergo a psychological/psychoeducational evaluation. Some clients are trying to gather information; others want an accurate diagnosis, while some are seeking specific recommendations. A comprehensive evaluation includes information gathered through interviews/consultation, behavioral observations, and actual testing results. Depending on the nature of the referral, the assessment may include screeners, diagnostic testing, or a more comprehensive assessment. Most evaluations include a formal report along with a detailed feedback session reviewing the results and recommendations. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ADHD is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. There are three types: predominantly inattentive presentation, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation, and combined presentation. Depending on the nature of the referral, screenings, basic or comprehensive diagnostic assessment, or psychological/psychoeducational evaluations are recommended. Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) SLD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that includes persistent difficulties in learning despite the provision of extra help at home or at school. Individuals with SLD exhibit well below-average academic skills as compared with same-age peers. SLD can occur in the areas of reading, written expression, and/or mathematics and can affect one or multiple areas, including word reading accuracy, reading fluency, reading comprehension, spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, clarity or organization of written expression, number sense, memorization of arithmetic facts, accurate or fluent calculation and accurate math reasoning. Terms associated with SLD include dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia. A comprehensive psychoeducational evaluation is recommended to assess for SLD, which includes a battery of cognitive and academic achievement assessments. Giftedness/Intelligence Testing (IQ) Giftedness is present in individuals with an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. Individually administered measure of intelligence is recommended in order to determine the need for enrichment within the school setting. At times, IQ testing is recommended for other reasons. Several different IQ tests are offered depending on the nature of the referral and the specific needs of the client being assessed. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) The essential features of ASD are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the severity of the condition, developmental level, and chronological age. Comprehensive diagnostic and/or psychoeducational evaluation is recommended in order to develop an individualized treatment/educational or vocational plan. Kindergarten Readiness Kindergarten readiness assessments are tailored to individual client needs to determine readiness for school and/or specialized services. This type of assessment can include measures of cognitive ability, pre-academic skills, social/emotional functioning, and behavior. Personality Assessment Many psychological conditions present with a specific course throughout development, however, personality includes a more stable set of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from both biological and environmental factors. Assessment in this area is useful when treatment planning and is offered for adolescents and adults, particularly when traditional treatment has been ineffective. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders Many different clinical disorders lead to emotional/behavioral struggles in children, adolescents, and adults. Symptoms are assessed via clinical interview, collaborative consultation, and psychological assessment, which often includes measures/input from multiple raters (parent, self, teacher, etc.) to determine the severity of struggles that occur across settings. Comprehensive diagnostic and/or psychoeducational evaluation is recommended to develop an individualized treatment/educational or vocational plan. Neuropsychological Screening Cognitive screenings and assessments are offered to determine areas of strength and weakness as well as pinpoint any deficits leading to impairment. Career Exploration Clients who struggle to decide on a college or vocational path often benefit from assessment of aptitude and interest. This type of assessment is useful for high school students and adults who are seeking help deciding on a college major or career change.